U.S. Constitution:  English-Latin

Instituta Legesque Civitatum Fœderatarum Americæ Fundamentales
Anglice Latineque redditæ

The

Constitution

of the

United States

Contents / Index

Nota:  Constitutio Civitatum Fœderatarum Americæ est principalis Civitatum Fœderatarum Americæ lex, die 17 Septembris 1787 Philadelphiæ in urbe perfecta.  Hæc versio Latina[1] hic exhibitur ut auxilium sit eis qui de Civitatum Fœderatarum Rectione Latine scribant.

Quotiens poterant, Vicipædiani auctores, ad propositum, normis linguisticis typographicisque classicis usi sunt.[2] At simul auctores aliquos linguæ sæculi duodevicensimi publicæ[3] aspectus quoque cultivare voluerunt, ut structura et notiones speciales ejus ætatis asserventur.  Necesse fuit, exempli gratia, terminis legitimis uti ejus ætatis, sicut attincta[4] et Litteræ Marcarum Reprensaliarumque.[5]  Quæ quum ita sit, auctores semper has locutiones in litteris Latine scriptis ejus ætatis invenerunt.

Verumtamen lectori cavendum est, quod multa menda adhuc manere possunt.

Notæ: 
  •  1  Versa est a Vicipædianis ab anno 2008.
  •  2  Semper usi sunt e.g. conjunctione cum loco quumSed hic usus a præsente scriptore (Brenno Regan) revertitur, et hoc in tractatu « quum » scriptum est.  Vocabula nova quoque evitavimus sicut legislativus et unio pro qua utimur vocabulis classicis legifer et consociatio.
  •  3  Vide e.g. scripturas latinas Isaaci Newtoni.
  •  4  Verbum mediævalium.  Anglice: Attainder.
  •  5  Anglice: Letters of Marque and Reprisal.
Editor’s note:  The Latin version of this English-Latin en face presentation of the U.S. Constitution is partially modified from the Vicipaedia version presented at https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textus_Constitutionis_Civitatum_Foederatarum_Americae_in_Latinum_conversus.

The following is the complete text of the United States Constitution. Text in purple designates added comments:  example.  Text in parentheses and italics (and in cyan, for those with color browsers) has been modified or superseded:  (example).


Preamble
𝖂𝖊 𝖙𝖍𝖊 𝕻𝖊𝖔𝖕𝖑𝖊 of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Præfatio
𝕹𝖔𝖘 Civitatum Fœderatarum 𝕻𝖔𝖕𝖚𝖑𝖚𝖘, ut consociationem meliorem perficiamus, justitiam instituamus, pacem domesticam repromittamus, defensæ publicæ provideamus, bonam vivendi condicionem promoveamus, et libertatis fortunam nobis nostrisque posteris percipiamus, hanc Constitutionem pro Fœderatis Americæ Civitatibus constituimus et instituimus.

Article I{ 1 }Articulus I
Section 1.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
1:1 Sectio I.
Omnes potestates legiferæ hic datæ assignabuntur Congressui Civitatum Fœderatarum, qui e Senatu et Camera Repræsentantium constabit.
Section 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

(Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.) (The previous sentence in parentheses was superseded by Amendment XIV, section 2.)  The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.  The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;  and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

1:2 Sectio II.

Camera Repræsentantium e sodalibus componetur, electis secundo quoque anno a Civitatum singularum populo;  cujus suffragatores omnes qualitates habebunt, quæ ab suffragatoribus rami numerosissimi illius Civitatis Cœtus Legiferi requiruntur.

Nemo Repræsentans erit, qui minus quam viginti quinque annos natus est, qui minus quam septem annos Civitatum Fœderatarum civis est, aut qui, quum a Civitate electus sit, adhuc in eadem Civitate non vivit.

[Repræsentantium numerus et vectigalium directorum quantitas inter varias Civitates hac in consociatione proportionaliter assignabuntur, secundum proprios eorum numeros qui addendo hominum liberorum numerum — inclusis hominibus ad muneris spatium plurium annorum quoddam astrictis, exceptisque Indis sine vectigalium obligatione — et tres quintas partes omium aliorum hominum decernentur.][6]  Ipsa enumeratio intra triennium fiet, postquam primum Congressus Civitatum Fœderatarum convenerit, et iterum intra quodque decennium subsequens, secundum modum procedendi ab ipsis Repræsentantibus legibus statuendum.  Numerus Repræsentantium nunquam unum pro triginta milibus civium excedebit, sed omni Civitati minimum unus Repræsentans erit;  et, usque ad tempus quum civium enumeratio facta erit,
  • Civitati Novæ Hantoniæ eligendi sunt tres,
  • Massachusetæ octo,
  • Rhodensis Insulæ et Providentiæ Arbusta unus,
  • Connecticutæ quinque,
  • Novo Eboraco sex,
  • Novæ Cæsareæ quattuor,
  • Pennsilvaniæ octo,
  • Delawariæ unus,
  • Terræ Mariæ sex,
  • Virginiæ decem,
  • Carolinæ Septentrionali quinque,
  • Carolinæ Meridionali quinque, et
  • Georgiæ tres.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers;  and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Sede Repræsentantiva cujusvis Civitatis vacante, ejus exsecutoria auctoritas præcepta ad suffragium edet, ut sedes repleatur.

Camera Repræsentantium oratorem suum aliosque magistratus eliget;  et sola ea poterit magistratus accusare ut summoveantur.

Nota:  6 :  Emendatione XIV mutatus est
Section 3.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding words in parentheses superseded by Amendment XVII, section 1.) for six Years;  and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes.  The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year;  (and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by Amendment XVII, section 2.)
1:3 Sectio III.

Senatus Civitatum Fœderatarum e duobus Senatoribus e quaque Civitate componetur, [a Cœtu Legifero ejus Civitatis,][7] in sexennium electis;  et unusquisque Senator suffragium unum habebit.

Statim postquam primæ electionis causa congregaverint, in tres classes quam æque dividentur.  Sedes Senatorum classis primæ secundo anno vacuabuntur, classis secundæ quarto anno, classis tertiæ sexto anno, ut triens secundo quoque anno eligendus sit;  [et si sedes abdicatione vel aliquomodo vacuentur, Cœtu Legifero in recessu, Exsecutivus ejus potest delegatos temporarios assignare, usque ad tempus quum Cœtus Legifer iterum congrediat, qui tunc sedes vacantes replebit].[7]

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
Nemo Senator erit, qui minus quam triginti annos natus fuerit, qui minus quam novem annos Civitatum Fœderatarum civis fuerit, aut qui, quum electus sit, adhuc non vivit in Civitate pro qua electus erit.

Præses Vicarius Civitatum Fœderatarum præses Senatûs erit, sed suffragio carebit, nisi se æque dividant.

Senatus sibi alios magistratus eliget;  atque etiam præsidem pro tempore, Præside Vicario absente aut magistratum Præsidis Civitatum Fœderatarum exercente.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.  When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmative. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside:  And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States:  but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Senatus solus omnes delationes ut magistratus summoveatur judicare potest.  Eo consilio considentes sub jure jurando vel affirmatione erunt.  Quum Præses Civitatum Fœderatarum judicetur, Summus Judex præerit:  et nemo sine consensu bessis sodalium præsentium condemnabitur.

Judicium in delationis causis nunquam excedet ultra quam eum a magistratu summovere et ad omne munus honoris, confidentiæ, lucrive sub Civitatibus Fœderatis inutilem reddere;  sed persona convicta tamen erit obnoxia ad arcessendum, judicium et pœnas, secundum leges.

Nota:  7  7.0 7.1 Emendatione XVII mutatus est
Section 4.

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof;  but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be (on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by Amendment XX, section 2.) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

1:4 Sectio IV.

Horas, locos, et modos comitiorum Senatoribus Repræsentantibusque creandis habendorum Cœtus Legifer in quaque Civitate dictabit;  sed Congressus talia præcepta in quaque hora legitime potest mutare, præter locum ubi Senatores electi sunt.

Congressus minimum semel quoque in Anno congredietur, et talis Cœtus [primo Lunæ die Decembris] erit,[8] nisi legibus alium diem ascribant.

Nota:  8 Emendatione XX mutatus est
Section 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business;  but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy;  and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

1:5 Sectio V.

Utraque Camera electiones, suffragia, et suorum sodalium jura qualitatesque judicabit, et ad negotium agendum major pars utrius sufficiet;  sed numerus defectus potest intervallatis diebus consistere, et potest auctoritatem sodalium absentium ad Congressum compellendorum habere, tali modo et sub talibus pœnis, quales utracumque Camera potest ei providere.

Utraque Camera potest sua præcepta de re agenda instituere, suos sodales propter mores incompositos pœnire et, bessibus eorum concurrentibus, sodalem expellere.

Utraque Camera Ephemeridem suorum actorum tenebit, et eandem omni tempore edere potest, præter partes quæ, sententia sua, clandestinitatem requirant;  et, quinta eorum præsentium parte ita petente, responsa sodalium alterutrius Cameræ qui super quæstione disputata « Sic » aut « Non » ajunt in Ephemeride scribenda sunt.

Neutra Camera, in Congressus sessione, sine alterius consensu, plures quam tres dies ampliabit, nec ad alium locum quam illum ubi ambæ Cameræ sedebunt.

Section 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.  They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same;  and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time;  and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

1:6 Sectio VI.

Senatores et Repræsentantes pro muneribus suis pensionem, quam lex statuit, ex ærario Civitatum Fœderatarum accipient.  Omnes semper, nisi perduellionem, feloniam, aut læsionem pacis facessant, fruentur privilegio ne comprehendantur, dum Cameræ suæ propriæ sessioni assistunt et in eandem eunt et ab ea redeunt;  neque propter ullam orationem disceptationemve in utraque Camera habitam alibi interrogabuntur.

Nullus Senator nec Repræsentans, per muneris tempus propter quod electus est, quemvis ad magistratum sub auctoritate Civitatum Fœderatarum designabitur, qui creatus fuerit aut cujus emolumenta eodem tempore augeantur;  et nemo qui aliquo magistratu sub Civitatibus Fœderatis fungitur, sodalis utriusque Cameræ erit dum magistratus ejus continuat.

Section 7.

All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives;  but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
1:7 Sectio VII.

Omnes leges ad vectigal statuendum a Camera Repræsentantium orietur;  sed, sicut ceteris in rogationibus agitur, Senatus potest correctiones proponere aut cum obrogationibus propositis concurrere.
Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States;  If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.  If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law.  But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.  If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.Omnis rogatio, a Camera Repræsentantium et Sentatu approbata, antequam lex fiet, ad Præsidem Civitatum Fœderatarum præbebitur;  Præses, si eam approbet, signabit;  sed, si discrepet, eam contradictionibus suis indicatis Congressui ad Cameram ubi orta erit, remittet, quæ, has contradictiones ex toto in Ephemeride scribens, postea eam retractabit.  Rogatione retractata, si tamen bes eorum ad legem faciendum consentiat, rogatio una cum contradictionibus indicatis ad alteram mittetur Cameram, quæ tunc similiter rogationem retractabit;  et si bes hujus Cameræ eam quoque approbaverit, tunc illa continuo lex faciet.  Semper autem talibus in rebus, suffragia ambarum Camerarum « Sic » et « Non » dicendo statuentur, et nomina eorum qui pro aut contra rogationem dicunt in Ephemeride utriusque Cameræ proprie scribebuntur.  Si Præses intra decem dies (præter Solis dies) rogationem ei propositam non reddit, eadem lex erit, eodem modo quasi eam signavisset, nisi Congressus ampliando remissionem impedat, quo in casu lex non erit.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States;  and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Omne jussum, decretum, aut suffragium de quo Senatus et Camera Repræsentantium concurrere debent (præter quæstiones de sessione consistenda) ad Præsidem Civitatum Fœderatarum præbebitur;  et, antequam idem efficietur, a Præside comprobatum erit aut, ab eo improbato, a besse Senatus Cameræque Repræsentantium denuo approbanda est, secundum præcepta et restrictiones jam in rogationis casu præscriptas.
Section 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States;  but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsœver, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;  And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

1:8 Sectio VIII.

Congressus potestatem habebit ut vectigalia, portoria, indictiones, et venalicia imponant colligantque eo consilio, ut debita solvantur et defensæ communi et bonæ publicæ Civitatum Fœderatarum provideant;  sed omnia portoria, indictiones, et venalicia æquabiliter per omnes Civitates Fœderatas erunt:

  • Ut pecunias sub fide Civitatum Fœderatarum mutuentur;

  • Ut commercium cum alienis nationibus, et apud complures Civitates, et cum gentibus Indicis moderentur;

  • Ut æquabilia naturalizationis præcepta et æquabiles decoctionum leges per omnes Civitates Fœderatas instituant;

  • Ut pecuniam cudant, et moderentur æstimationem ejus pecuniarumque alienarum, et normam ponderum mensurarumque statuant;

  • Ut eos punire, qui pignora et Civitatum Fœderatarum pecuniam præsentem adulterando simulent, comparent;

  • Ut officinas tabellarias et vias tabellarias instituant;

  • Ut scientiæ et utilium artium progressum adjuvent, concesso auctoribus inventoribusque, definitis temporibus, exclusorio dominii privilegio ad suas proprias litteras et reperta;

  • Ut tribunalia Supremo Judicio inferiora instituant;

  • Ut piraticas et felonias altis maribus factas, et injurias contra jus gentium, definiant puniantque;

  • Ut bellum indicant, litteras marcarum reprensaliarumque concedant, et præcepta de comprehensionibus terra marique factis faciant;

  • Ut exercitus conficiant et sustineant, sed nulla pecunia illud ad propositum data temporis spatium diutius quam biennio tantum durabit;

  • Ut copias navales instituant et sustineant;

  • Ut præcepta pro gubernatione moderationeque copiarum terrestrium navaliumque faciant;

  • Ut rebus provideant, quibus militia provocetur ad Consociationis Leges exsequendas, seditiones opprimendas, et invasiones repellendas;

  • Ut rebus provideant, quibus militia componatur, armetur, et disciplinetur, quibusque ea pars eorum quæ ad Civitatum Fœderatarum munus adhibeatur gubernetur, reservatis ad singulas Civitates modis per quos præfecti præficiuntur, et auctoritate militiæ juxta doctrinas a Congressu præscriptas docendæ;

  • Ut ii soli leges ferant in omnibus quibuscumque casibus super eam regionem (quæ decem milia pedum quadrata non excedat) quæ, per quarundam Civitatum cessionem, et acceptionem Congressûs, potest fieri sedes rectionis Civitatum Fœderatarum;  et ut imperium simile exerceant super omnes locos quos, consensu Cœtus Legiferi illius Civitatis ubi iidem siti sint, emant, ut castra, entecas, armamentaria, navalia, et alia ædificia utilia constituant;  Et

  • Ut omnes leges aptas ac necessarias perferant, ut antecedentes potestates et omnes alias potestates execeantur, quas hæc Constitutio rectioni Civitatum Fœderatarum, vel cuiquam ministerio vel magistratui ejus, assignat.

Section 9.

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

(No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.) (Section in parentheses modified by Amendment XVI.)

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another:  nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law;  and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:  And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

1:9 Sectio IX.

Migratio vel invectio talium hominum, quales Civitatibus nunc stantibus admittere placet, a Congressu non vetabitur ante annum millesimum octingentesimum et octavum, sed tali invectioni potest vectigal vel portorium imponi, quod decem dollaria in singulis Personis non excedit.

Privilegium de mandato Habeas Corpus non suspendetur, nisi in rebellionis vel invasionis casibus incolumitas publica id requirat.

Nulla rogatio de attactu aut lex ex post facto approbabitur;

[Nulla capitatio aut alium vectigal directum exigetur, nisi in proportione censui vel enumerationi quæ hic supra agi est jussa.][9]

Nullum vectigal vel venalicium de rebus e Civitate quaquam exportatis exigetur.

Nulli portus unius Civitatis per quamquam commercii vel vectigalis regulam portubus alterius præferetur:  nec naves ad unam Civitatem navigantes, vel ab una, obligentur, ut in alteram ineant, meent, aut ibi portoria solvant.

Nulla pecunia ex ærario extrahetur, nisi juxta acta attributionis lege facta;  et semper ordinatim disposita descriptio ratioque de acceptis et expensis omnis pecuniæ publicæ certis temporibus edentur.

Nullus nobilitatis titulus a Civitatibus Fœderatis dabitur:  et nemo qui sub eis magistratum quæstûs fideive tenet, nisi Congressus consentit, ullum donum, emolumentum, magistratum, titulumve, cujuscumque generis, ab ullo rege, principe, vel aliena Civitate accipiet.

Nota:  9 Emendatione XVI mutatus est.
Section 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation;  grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal;  coin Money;  emit Bills of Credit;  make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts;  pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws:  and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States;  and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

1:10 Sectio X.

Nulla Civitas in ullum pactum, fœdus, aut confœderationem inibit;  nec litteras jus talionis ultionisque deferentes concedet;  nummos cudet;  fidei rogationes edet;  ullam rem nisi aurum aut argentum ut oblationem pro debitis solvendis faciet;  ullam rogationem attactûs,[10] legem ex post facto, vel legem pactorum obligationes impedientem approbabit;  vel nobilitatis titulum dabit.

Nulla Civitas, sine Congressus consensu, ullum vectigal aut portorium rebus importatis vel exportatis imponet, excepto eo quod omnino necesse sit ut suas inspiciendi leges exerceat;  et reditus omnium portatoriorum vectigaliumque coacervatus, quem ulla Civitas rebus importatis vel exportatis imponat, erit usui ærarii Civitatum Fœderatarum;  et omnes ejusdemmodi leges potest emendare et gubernare Congressus.

Nulla Civitas, sine Congressus consensu, ullum amphorarum portorium imponet, copias armatas aut naves bellicas pacis tempore tenebit, in pactum aut fœdus cum alia Civitate aut aliena potentia inibit, aut bellum geret, nisi in eam sit re vera invasa, aut in tali periculo imminenti quale moram non admittit.

Nota:   10  rogatio attactûs = rogatio jures civitatis humanitatisque exuenda (aliquando indictâ causâ)
Article 2{ 2 }Articulus II
Section 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.  He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
2:1 Sectio I.

Potestas exsecutoria Præsidi Civitatum Fœderatarum Americæ assignabitur.  Is suum magistratum ad muneris spatium quattuor annorum tenebit, et cum Præside Vicario ad idem temporis spatium electo, eligendus est sic:

Quæque Civitas, secundum modum procedendi ab ipso Cœtu Legifero statutum, electorum delegabit numerum pleno Senatorum Repræsentantiumque numero parem, qui ei Civitati in Congressu pertineat;  sed nullus Senator nec Repræsentans, nec homo qui sub Civitatibus Fœderatis magistratum quĉstûs fideive tenet, elector creabitur.
(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.  And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each;  which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate.  The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted.  The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed;  and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President;  and if no Person have a Majority,  then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President.  But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote;  a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.  In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.  But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause in parentheses was superseded by Amendment XII.) [Electores in suis Civitatibus propriis congredientur, ubi suffragia cistis ferent pro duobus hominibus, quorum saltem unus non eandem Civitatem inhabitabit quam ipsi electores.  Et facient elenchum omnium hominum quibus suffragatores sunt suffragati, et numerorum suffragiorum cujusque;  hunc elenchum subscribent certificabuntque, et consignatum ad sedem rectionis Civitatum Fœderatarum transmittent, directum ad præsidem Senatus.  Præses Senatus coram Senatu Cameraque Repræsentantium omnia testimonia consignata aperiet, et suffragia tunc numerabuntur.  Homo qui maximum suffragiorum numerum habet erit Præses, si ille numerus pleraque pars cuncti numeri electorum assignatorum est;  et si sit plus quam unus qui talem pluralitatem habent et eundem suffragiorum numerum habent, tunc Camera Repræsentantium statim suffragia cista feret, ut utrum eligant Præsidem;  et si nullus pluralitatem habeat, tunc ex quinque eorum altissimis in elencho eadem Camera simili modo Præsidem eliget.  Quum autem Præsidem eligat, suffragia per Civitates ferentur, cujusque Civitatis Repræsentatio unum suffragium ferens;  numerus Repræsentantium præsentium ad hoc propositum necessarius e sodali sodalibusve bessis Civitatum constabit, et major pars omnium Civitatum ad electionem opus erit.  Omni casu postquam Præses electus est, homo cui maximus suffragiorum numerus est, Præses Vicarius erit.  Si autem duo pluresve remanent qui eundem numerum suffragiorum habent, Senatus cistis ferens inter eos Præsidem Vicarium eliget.][11]
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes;  which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President;  neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
Congresui licet decernere tempus electores eligendi et diem suffragia eorum ferendi;  qui dies per omnes Civitates Fœderatas idem erit.

Nemo, nisi qui natus est civis, aut qui, quum hæc Constitutio adoptata est, civis Civitatum Fœderatarum est, potest ad Præsidis magistratum eligi;  nec potest eligi quique homo adhuc non jam triginta quinque annos natus, quin jam quattuordecim annos in Civitatibus Fœderatis vixit.
(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has been modified by Amendments XX and XXV.) [Quum Præses a munere summoveatur, aut moriatur, abdicet, aut muneris potestates et officia exercere nequeat, hæc Præsidi Vicario defluent, et Congressui licet legibus casu et Præsidis et Præsidis Vicarii summovendi, moriendi, abdicandi, vel nequiendi providere, quum magistratum declaret qui deinde sicut Præses fungitur, et idem magistratus convenienter aget, donec incapacitas tollatur, aut Præses eligetur.][12]
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. Præses, certis temporibus dictis, pro munere suo pensionem accipiet, quæ nec augescit nec decrescit per spatium temporis quo electus est, sed per illud tempus alium emolumentum nec a Civitatibus Fœderatis, nec a quaquam eorum accipiet.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
Priusquam in muneris administrationem inibit, hoc jus jurandum affirmationemve dicet:

« Sollemniter juro (aut affirmo) me fideliter munere Præsidis Civitatum Fœderatarum functurum esse et, quantum possim, Civitatum Fœderatarum Constitutionem asservaturum, custoditurum et defensurum esse. »
Notæ:  11 Emendatione XII mutatus est
              12 Emendatione XXV mutatus est
Section 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States;  he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur;  and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law:  but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

2:2 Sectio II.

Præses exercitûs copiarumque navalium Civitatum Fœderatarum imperator erit, et militiarum Civitatum singularium, quum hæ copiæ ad actuosum munus Civitatum Fœderatarum arcessuntur;  potest sententiam primi magistratûs cujusque ministerii exsecutorii scriptam, de quavis re ad officia eorum propriorum attinente requirere, et potest pœnæ remissiones et indulgentias pro offensis contra Civitates Fœderatas concedere, præterquam in causis magistratûs summovendi.

Potestatem habebit, Senatu suadente consentienteque, ad fœdera icenda, quum bes Senatorum præsentium concurrit;  et surrogabit, et Senatu suadente consentienteque, creabit legatos, alios ministros publicos, consulesque, judices Judicii Summi, et omnes alios magistratus Civitatum Fœderatarum, quorum creationi hic non aliter providetur, et legibus instituetur:  sed Congressus legibus providere potest ut tales magistratûs inferiores, quales ei placent, a Præside solo, a judiciis juridicialibus, vel a capitibus ministeriorum, creantur.

Præses potestatem habebit omnium vacuitatum complendarum quæ, dum Senatus consistit, accidunt, præficiendis operibus suffectis quæ fine sessionis eorum proximæ desinent.

Section 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;  he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper;  he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers;  he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

2:3 Sectio III.

Congressui intervallatis temporibus indicia status Consociationis dabit, et consilia, ut intuantur, commendabit, quæ necessaria et conducibilia censebit;  potest, temporibus insolitis, unam vel ambas Cameras convocare, et quum eæ inter se discrepent de ampliandi tempore, potest eas consistere ad tempus quod sibi placebit;  legatos et alios ministros publicos accipiet;  curabit ut leges fideliter exerceantur, et omnibus Civitatum Fœderatarum præfectis præfecturam deferet.

Section 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

2:4 Sectio IV.

Præses, Præses Vicarius et omnes magistratus Civitatum Fœderatarum, a munere summovebuntur, qui delatione condemnationeque convincitur perduellionis, corruptelæ, vel aliorum scelerum altorum peccatorumque.

Article 3{ 3 }Articulus III
Section 1.

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.  The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

3:1 Sectio I.

Potestas judicialis Civitatum Fœderatarum assignabitur uno Supremo Judicio, et talibus inferioribus Judiciis sicut Congressus interdum potest constituere et instituere.  Judices, judiciorum et Supremi et inferiorum, dum bene se gerunt, magistratus tenebunt;  et dictis temporibus pro muneribus suis pensionem accipient, quæ dum in magistratu pergunt non decrescet.

Section 2.

(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;  to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;  to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;  to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;  to Controversies between two or more States;  between a State and Citizens of another State;  between Citizens of different States;  between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.) (This section in parentheses is modified by Amendment XI.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.  In all the other Cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury;  and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed;  but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

3:2 Sectio II.

[Potestas judicialis ad omnes causas pertinebit, in lege et æquitate, quæ sub hanc Constitutionem oriuntur, leges Civitatum Fœderatarum, et fœdera facta, vel in futuro facienda, sub auctoritate eorum;  ad omnes causas, quæ legatos, et alios ministros et consules afficient;  ad omnes causas de jurisdictione navali et maritima;  ad controversias cui Civitates Fœderatæ rea erunt;  ad controversias inter duas pluresve Civitates;  inter Civitatem quandam et cives aliæ Civitatis;  inter cives variarum Civitatum;  inter Cives ejusdem Civitatis simul petentes terras sub aliarum Civitatum donationibus;  inter Civitatem, vel cives ejus, et Civitates alienas vel cives vel homines imperio subjecti.][13]

Omnibus in causis quæ legatos, alios ministros et consules afficient, et in quibus quævis Civitas rea est, Supremum Judicium jurisdictionem originalem habebit.  Omnibus in aliis causis supra dictis, Supremum Judicium jurisdictionem appellatoriam habebit, et ad leges et revera, cum talibus exceptionibus, et sub talibus præceptis quales Congressus faciet.

Judicium omnium scelerum, præter causas magistratuum per delationem summovendorum, per consilium erit;  et hoc judicium in Civitate ubi eadem scelera facta erunt habebitur;  sed, scelere nulla in Civitate facto, judicium tali loco locisve habebitur ubi Congressus legibus statuisse poterit.

Nota:  13 Emendatione XI mutatus est
Section 3.

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.  No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

3:3 Sectio III.

Perduellio contra Civitates Fœderatas solum in bellum contra eas gerendo, aut in earum hostibus adhærendo, illis auxilium et solacium dando, constabit.  Nemo perduellionis condemnabitur nisi per testimonium duorum testium ad eundem actum apertum, aut per confessionem in judicio publico.

Congressus potestatem habebit, ut perduellionis pœnam dicat, sed nulla perduellionis attincta corruptelam sanguinis vel publicationem bonorum, præterquam dum homo attactus vivit, aget.

Article 4{ 4 }Articulus IV
Section 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State.  And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

4:1 Sectio I.

Plena fides et auctoritas quaque in Civitate dabitur actis publicis, monumentis, et litium tabulis omnium Civitatum aliarum.  Et Congressus legibus generalibus potest modum præscribere, quo hæ actæ publicæ, monumenta, et litium tabulæ probabuntur, et effectum eorum.

Section 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labor, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due.) (This clause in parentheses is superseded by Amendment XIII.)

4:2 Sectio II.

Civibus cujusque Civitatis omnia privilegia immunitatesque, quas cives variis in Civitatibus habent, concedentur.

Homo in quavis Civitate de perduellione, felonia, vel aliis sceleribus accusatus, qui a justitia fugans in alia Civitate reperitur, exsecutoria Civitatis auctoritate e qua fugit eum postulante, statim tradetur, ut ad Civitatem criminis juridictionem habentem summoveatur.

Debbie 253-439-8642 (mobile)

[Nemo ad munus aut laborem astrictus in una Civitate, sub legibus ejus, in aliam effugens, propter legem præceptumve in eo, ab eo munere aut labore absolvetur, sed is petitori, cui munus aut labor debeatur, postulanti tradetur.][14]

Nota:  14   Emendatione XIII mutatus est.
Section 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;  but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State;  nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States;  and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

4:3 Sectio III.

Novæ Civitates in hanc Consociationem a Congressu possunt admitti;  sed nullæ Civitates novæ formabuntur aut instituentur intra jurisdictionem ullius alius Civitatis;  nec ulla Civitas formabitur per conjunctionem duarum vel plurium Civitatum, sine Consensu Legiferorum Cœtuum Civitatum quarum interest et Congressus.

Congressus habebit potentiam faciendi omnia præcepta et regulas necessarias de regione vel de alia re quam possident Civitates Fœderatæ;  et nihil in hac Constitutione eo modo interpretabitur, ut ulla postulata Civitatum Fœderatarum vel cujusquam singulæ Civitatis coartantur.

Section 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion;  and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

4:4 Sectio IV.

Civitates Fœderatæ uni cuique Civitati hujus Consociationis formam rectionis republicanam pollicentur, et quamque eorum contra invasionem defendere;  et, Cœtu Legifero ejus postulante, vel Exsecutivo ejus postulante (quum Cœtus Legifer convenire non potest), contra violentiam domesticam.

Article 5{ 5 }Articulus V
Section 1.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress;  Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article;  and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

5:1 Sectio I.

Congressus, quotiescumque bes utriusque Cameræ id necessarium censuerit, Emendationes hujus Constitutionis proponet aut, Cœtibus Legiferis bessis Civitatum postulantibus, Conventum Emendationum proponendarum convocabit — quæ Emendationes, utroque in casu, idem valebunt ac hujus Constitutionis partes, quum a Cœtibus Legiferis dodrantis partium singularum Civitatum, aut a conventibus in dodrante partium earum, ratificatæ erunt, prout Congressus unum vel alterum ratificandi modum potest proponere — provisum ut nulla Emendatio quæ ante annum millesimum octingentesimum et octavum facta erit, ullo modo primam et quartam Clausulas nonæ Sectionis primi Articuli afficiet;  et ut nulla Civitas, sine ejus consensu, suffragio æquali in Senatu privabitur.

Article 6{ 6 }Articulus VI
Section 1.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof;  and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land;  and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution;  but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

6:1 Sectio I.

Omnia debita contracta et obligationes incohatæ, quæ facta sunt ante hanc Constitutionem adoptatam, idem valebunt contra Civitates Fœderatas sub hac Constitutione, atque sub Confœderationis articulis.

Hæc Constitutio, et leges Civitatum Fœderatarum quæ eam sequendo fient, et omnia Fœdera facta, aut quæ fient, sub auctoritate Civitatum Fœderatarum, summæ leges hujus terræ erunt;  et judices in omnibus Civitatibus per eas res obligabuntur, qualibet re in Constitutione aut legibus cujuslibet Civitatis contrariis non obstantibus.

Supradicti Senatores et Repræsentantes, et sodales singulorum Legiferorum Civitatum Cœtuum, et omnes magistratus exsecutivi judicialesque, et Civitatum Fœderatarum et singularum Civitatum, obligabuntur per affirmationem vel jus iurandum, ut hanc Constitutionem sustineant;  sed nulla probatio religiosa unquam requiretur sicut condicio ut ad magistratum vel confidentiam publicam sub Civitatibus Fœderatis admittatur.

Article 7{ 7 }Articulus VI
Section 1.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

7:1 Sectio I.

Ratihabitio per Conventiones novem Civitatum ad hanc Constitutionem instituendam inter Civitates eandem ratificantes sufficiet.


Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth.  In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Actum in conventu per consensum unanimum Civitatum præsentum septimo decimo die Septembris anno Domini millesimo septingentesimo octogintesimo septimo, et libertatis Civitatum Fœderatarum Americæ Duodecimo.  In testatmentum cujus, nos hic nomina nostra subscripsimus.  [13]
Signatures Subscriptiones

Go Washington — President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire — John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts — Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut — Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York — Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey — Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania — B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware — Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland — James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia — John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina — Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina — J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia — William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest:  William Jackson, Secretary

George Washington — Præses et vicarius Virginæ

Nova Hantonia — John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetta — Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut — Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

Novum Eboracum — Alexander Hamilton

Nova Cæsarea — Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania — B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delevaria — Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Terra Maria — James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia — John Blair, James Madison Jr.

Carolina Septentrionalis- Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

Carolina Meridionalis — J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia — William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attestor:  William Jackson, Scriba

Nota:  13 Subscripta infra data non convertimus quia per se non tantum nomina sunt, sed signa personalia ab his hominibus hunc textum affirmantibus data.  Qua de causa « Wm » non convertendum est in “William” nec “Guilielmus”!
Amendments / Obrogationes
The following are the Amendments to the Constitution.  The first ten Amendments collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights.
JURUM CIVILIUM DESCRIPTIO, H. E. EMENDATIONES PRIMÆ, DECEM NUMERO
A.D. VII KAL. OCT. ANNO P. C. N. MDCCLXXXIX A CONGRESSU LATÆ
A. D. XVIII KAL. JAN. ANNO P. C. N. MDCCXCI A CIVITATIBUS PERLATÆ
From:  http://thelatinlibrary.com/bill.rights.html
Translated by David Kovacs, Professor emeritus of Latin at the University of Virginia.
The Bill of Rights, i.e., the first ten Amendments
passed on 1789 Sep 25 by Congress,
ratified 1791 Dec 15 by the States
Amendment I - Religious establishment prohibited.  Freedom of speech, of the press, and right to petition.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;  or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;  or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 1 Ne quam legem perferto Congressus quae efficiat ut ulla de rebus divinis opinio vel ulla sacrorum forma publice constituatur, vel quae sanciat quominus omnes ea sacra quae sibi placeant libere colant;  vel quae jus libere loquendi vel scripta per prelum edendi minuat;  neu, quum populus jus habeat cum bona pace conveniendi, ulla lex sanciat quominus conveniat populus et a magistratibus injuriarum remedium postulent.
Amendment II - Right to keep and bear arms.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 2 Quum, nisi arma habebit exercita pubes, incolumis stare res publica non possit, ne adimunto jus civile armorum habendorum et ferendorum.
Amendment III - Conditions for quarters for soldiers.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 3 Ne collocanto pace milites in ullis ædibus invito domino neu bello nisi ut lege provisum erit.
Amendment IV - Right of search and seizure regulated.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 4 Quum id juris populus habeat ut sancti omnes sint quominus vel ipsi vel domus, res, scripta eorum ab ullo sine justa causa rapiantur excutianturve, ne violanto hoc jus neve ulli concedunto magistratui ut quenquam excutiant quicquamve rapiant nisi quis jure jurando vel affirmatione sollemni obstrictus causam veri similem afferat subtiliterque describat quem locum scrutari quasque res rapere oporteat.
Amendment V - Provisions concerning prosecution.  Trial and punishment - private property not to be taken for public use without compensation.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger;  nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;  nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;  nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 5 Ne quem citanto reum sceleris capitalis vel alioquin flagitiosi nisi a concilio judiciali majore accusatur, eis facinoribus exceptis quæ, dum in bello præsenti militatur vel in discrimine publico, in militia admissa erunt terrestri vel navali vel inter cujusvis civitatis vexillarios;  neu quenquam ejusdem admissi bis reum faciunto, neu cogunto, dum sceleris reus est, in se testimonium dicere;  neu vita, libertate, bonis privanto nisi rite secundum leges cognitum erit;  neve in usum publicum bona propria civium sumunto nisi pretio æquo soluto.
Amendment VI - Right to speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation;  to be confronted with the witnesses against him;  to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 6 Si quis cujuspiam criminis reus est, id juris habeto ut coram sine mora incorrupte atque integre a concilio judiciali judicetur quod ejusdem sit Civitatis in qua facinus admissum sit ejusdemque regionis (quae regiones lege antea constitutæ sunto), et ut certior fiat cujus rei accusatus sit et quam ob causam, et ut coram accusantes audiat, et ut habeat quomodo testes adesse compellat qui pro se dicere possint, et ut advocati ope in defensione uti liceat.
Amendment VII - Right of trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 7 In omnibus litibus quæ secundum commune quod dicunt jus cognoscuntur, in quibus quidem res agantur quæ pluris viginti thalerorum æstimantur, jus habento litigantes ut a concilio judiciali lis judicetur;  et si de quavis re a concilio judiciali judicatum erit, ne quis judex, postmodo appellatus, de eadem re aliter judicato quam concilio judiciali fretus secundum commune quod dicunt jus.
Amendment VIII - Excessive bail or fines and cruel punishment prohibited.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 8 Vadimonium nimium ne exigunto neu multas imponunto nimias neu pœnas sævas vel inusitatas sumunto.
Amendment IX - Rule of construction of Constitution.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 9 Quod in hac Constitutione quædam jura enumerantur, non idcirco adimuntur minuunturve cetera jura a populo retenta.
Amendment X - Rights of States under Constitution.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 10 Quæ jura hæc Constitutio nec Civitatibus Fœderatis impertit nec Civitatibus singulis denegat, hæc omnia vel Civitatibus singulis servantur vel populo.

The Later Amendments


Amendment XI - Judicial Powers construed.  Ratified 1795 Feb 7.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or subjects of any foreign State.


Amendment XII - Manner of choosing President and Vice-President.  Ratified 1804 Jun 15.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves;  they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed;  and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President.  But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote;  a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice.  And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President;  a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


Amendment XIII - Slavery Abolished.  Ratified 1865 Dec 6.

  1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

  2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XIV - Citizenship rights not to be abridged.  Ratified 1868 Jul 9.

  1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.  No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;  nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;  nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

  2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed.  But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

  3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.  But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

  4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave;  but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

  5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Amendment XV - Race no bar to voting rights.  Ratified 1870 Feb 3.

  1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

  2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XVI - Income taxes authorized.  Ratified 1913 Feb 3.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Amendment XVII - United States Senators to be elected by popular vote.  Ratified 1913 April 8.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years;  and each Senator shall have one vote.  The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


Amendment XVIII - Liquor prohibition amendment.  Ratified 1919 Jan 16.  Repealed by Amendment XXI, 1933 Dec 5.

  1. After one year from the ratification of this article, the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

  2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by Congress.


Amendment XIX - Giving nationwide suffrage to women.  Ratified 1920 Aug 18.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any States on account of sex.

The Congress shall have power by appropriate legislation to enforce the provisions of this article.


Amendment XX - Terms of President and Vice President to begin on Jan. 20;  those of Senators, Representatives, Jan. 3.  Ratified 1933 Jan 23.

  1. The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified;  and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

  2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

  3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice-President-elect shall become President.  If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President-elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified;  and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice-President-elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.

  4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

  5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

  6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


Amendment XXI - Repeal of Amendment XVIII.  Ratified 1933 Dec 5.

  1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

  2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

  3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Amendment XXII - Limiting Presidential terms of office.  Ratified 1951 Feb 27.

  1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.  But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who May be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

  2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


Amendment XXIII - Presidential vote for District of Columbia.  Ratified 1961 Mar 29.

  1. The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:  A number of electors of President and Vice-President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State;  they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice-President, to be electors appointed by a State;  and they shall meet in the district and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

  2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XXIV - Barring poll tax in federal elections.  Ratified 1964 Jan 23.

  1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice-President, for electors for President or Vice-President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

  2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XXV - Presidential disability and succession.  Ratified 1967 Feb 10.

  1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice-President shall become President.

  2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice-President, the President shall nominate a Vice-President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

  3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President.

  4. Whenever the Vice-President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice-President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.  Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session.  If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;  otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


Amendment XXVI - Lowering voting age to 18 years.  Ratified 1971 Jul 1.

  1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

  2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Amendment XXVII - Congressional Pay.  Ratified 1992 May 7.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.


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Deus vult ! — Brian Regan ( Inscriptio electronica :   )
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