On July 28,1996 Will Thomas and Dave Deacy found a skeleton, later to be called the Kennewick Man, on the banks of the Columbia River in Washington State. They called the Benton County coroner's office, which then turned it over to Dr. James C. Chatters, now an Adjunct Associate Professor of Research at Central Washington University and owner of Applied Paleoscience in Richland, Washington, and a forensic anthropologist, archaeologist, paleoecologist and local specialist in ancient bones who also happens to be married to an Indian woman. Immediately Dr. Chatters recognized the skull as Caucasoid and at first thought it might be that of an early 19th-century White pioneer, so he sent samples of the bones to an appropriate laboratory to be dated. Through advanced methods in radio-carbon dating the Kennewick Man was found to be about 9,300 years old.
The remains are the best preserved and fullest skeleton of another seven similar ones that have been discovered in North America. After many anthropologists and other scientists did further testing on these skeletons, they found out that, in one way or another, they all had Caucasoid-like features.1 That is, while they were not exactly the same as modern Europeans, they were closer to them than to Indians or most of today's Orientals. Since 1938 archeologists throughout western North America have been digging up artifacts from the later glacial era (approximately fourteen thousand to ten thousand years ago). Most of the skeletons and artifacts have been found in the west, since the eastern side of the continent is much more humid and acidic, which makes the long-term preservation of bones unlikely. The traits of most of these ancient artifacts differ substantially from those of the artifacts we find in "Native American" cultures. Animal bones found with such human remains indicate that the earliest peoples in this hemisphere hunted large game, like mammoths and giant bison, not just deer or bison of the size found in America today.
A mammoth of the Kennwick Man's era
Subsequent political machinations, including the treachery of the corrupt U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the criminally duplicitous Mr. Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Interior under the morally defective regime of U.S. President Bill Clinton, blocked all further scientific efforts to determine the true provenance of this gift from the ancient past. The narrative of this crime against science has been set forth in detail by Dr. Chatters in his book on the subject, "Ancient Encounters: Kennewick Man and the first Americans" (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001). Anyone interested not only in Kennewick Man and the earliest peopling of the Americas, but also in the increasing defeat of science by the U.S. government, needs to read this book.
The government has allowed the Indians to steal some of the bones, add one not belonging to the skeleton, and put ashes and cedar branches into the bone box, as well as to unseal the protecting plastic bags so as to allow foreign material in to contaminate the bones. Furthermore, this same government has spent $2 million dollars in the legal effort to block scientific investigation of the skeleton, has lied, has concealed truth relevant to the case, and has dumped many tons of earth on the Kennewick discovery site so as to make all further serious work impossible. This last action took place, according to The Philadelphia Inquirer, on orders that "came all the way from the White House" (Ancient Encounters, p. 160). The Federal government, in other words, colluded with the Indians in the absurd lies about the tribes supposedly occupying the area since time began. Clearer evidence of the anti-White racism of the U.S. government is hard to find.
It is not the purpose of this article to repeat in detail the descriptions and scholarly explanations presented in Dr. Chatters' book. All of these details can be found in that work. Here it will suffice merely to set forth the highlights and main conclusions of his research, which reveals that, contrary to popular opinion and Indian myths, the American Indians (Amerinds) are actually Johnnies-come-lately in the western hemisphere.
It should first be mentioned that dating early American immigration flows is made extremely difficult due to two major factors in the last, or Wisconsinan, Ice Age: warm periods ("interstadials") and shoreline inundation.
The warm periods (14,500 - 12,800 and 11,500 - 8,200, then after 8,000 B.P.) made expansion of humans possible into inland North America - for instance, into eastern Washington State. But they also raised ocean levels and flooded the earlier human habitations along the shorelines. With the repeated advance and retreat of the seas, countless seashore sites were obliterated forever, and the few that might remain are today under three hundred feet of water. In southern France, the Cosquer cave (discovered by Henri Cosquer at Cape Morgiou, in the Calanques, near Marseilles) was found in 1985 with Mesolithic Stone-Age paintings from between 28,000 and 18,000 years ago on the walls. Its entrance is 37 meters/120 feet underwater, although the paintings themselves are in a chamber above sea level, 175 meters/575 feet from the entrance. And Sasha Nemecek, in a September 2000 feature article in Scientific American magazine, reported, "In 1997 ... Daryl Fedje, an archaeologist with Parks Canada (which runs that country's national parks system), led a team that pulled up a small stone tool from 160 feet underwater just off the coast of British Columbia. The single tool, which Fedje estimates to be around 10,200 years old, does establish that people once lived on the now submerged land but reveals little about the culture there." So the difficult field of underwater archeology, especially in frigid waters, has much yet to do.
Nonetheless, we already know quite a bit. Long before the Indians ever appeared on these shores, Paleoamericans had populated it thoroughly. In the warm periods of the last or Late Wisconsinan ice age, which lasted from 75,000 to about 11,000 years ago, peoples from the eastern rim of Asia migrated in boats along the Pacific rim to the Americas. Some archeologists, such as Ruth Gruhn of the University of Alberta and her husband, Alan Bryan, believe that this entry began occurring as far back as 50,000 years ago. At Monte Verde in the foothills of southern Chile, the deepest stratum of human habitation has been tentatively dated to over 30,000 years ago, and the upper stratum has been shown by radiocarbon dating to be 14,700 years old. The very earliest skulls throughout South America are of an early Negroid (Proto-Negroid) type related to the Austrialian Aborigines, which indicate that these people probably migrated from the tropical portions of southeast Asia and Indonesia around the Pacific rim, or even directly across the Pacific Ocean, to South America, thus becoming the very first American immigrants.
Another input stream came, so it increasingly appears, from the Solutrean culture of ancient Spain and southern France before 18,000 or 19,000 years ago. At the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, a record of human presence has been found reaching back to 15,400 years ago and perhaps even to 20,000 B.P. (before present). Here, and also at Cactus Hill in Virginia (18,000 to 20,000 years ago) and Topper in South Carolina (still undated, but very old), the deposits are quite similar to remains from the Solutrean culture of Ice Age Europe, indicating that the early Europeans may have crossed the Atlantic, skirting the iceberg boundaries, to colonize eastern North America. A descendant of these Solutrean-derived settlements was quite possibly the later Clovis culture, named after discoveries at the Blackwater Draw site near Clovis, New Mexico.2 The Clovis findings show considerable similarity to those at Meadowcroft, Cactus Hill and Topper. Alternatively, some think that the Clovis culture evolved from the Nenana (Tenana River basin of Alaska) population (13,900 B.P.), which itself is postulated to have come from the Dyuktai culture of Siberian big-game hunters near Lake Baikal across the Siberian-Alaskan land bridge ("Beringia") perhaps around 14,000 years ago. There are, however, serious difficulties with this hypothesis involving timing and glaciation that make it unlikely that Clovis was a descendant of Nenana or the Dyuktai.
Two views of Beringia
Then there is the immigration which originated on the Mammoth Steppe of Asia. The Mammoth Steppe is the largest stretch of reasonably flat terrain on earth, extending south of the ice sheets from what is now northern Germany across the rather low-lying Ural mountains and southern Siberia and Mongolia almost to the Sea of Okhotsk north of Japan. The extremely thin population of this then treeless area now seems to have been the Proto-Caucasoid, parent stock out of which both the northern Caucasoid (White) and Mongoloid (Yellow) branches of humanity evolved. Around 15,000 B.P., on the Pacific coast east of this vast steppe, and in Japan itself, the Jomon people first appeared, a hunting-gathering-fishing culture that lasted for over 10,000 years. It was this culture that was ancestral to the Ainu, the indigenous Caucasoid-like (or Proto-Caucasoid) people of Japan. Around 300 B.C. this people was invaded by Korean rice farmers and gradually lost ground until they remained only as a small remnant on Japan's northernmost islands, and are now practically extinct. The Jomons seem to have spread out around the Pacific and eventually miscegenated with the Polynesians (who themselves emigrated from southeast Asia around 6,000 years ago) of the central and eastern Pacific. In consequence, the Jomons, the Ainu and the Polynesians share many facial and cranial measurements, for which reason they are referred to as the "Jomon-Pacific" cluster. The Jomon people were quite capable of making it by boat to North America as well, and would have done so sometime in the period 15,000-11,000 B.P., perhaps earlier. And indeed, Kennewick Man shows craniofacial characteristics typical of this Jomon-Pacific class. He was, in other words, an eastern Proto-Caucasoid.
But Kennewick Man is not the only one of his type. Dr. Chatters took the Kennewick skeleton to anthropologist Dr. Catherine ("Katie") MacMillan in the Anthropology Department of Central University for an independent racial evaluation. After studying it carefully, she determined the race to be White.
But before she could get to the Kennewick Man, she had some other work to do, and Dr. Chatters had to wait for a while until she was ready. During this wait, he wandered around and found a Kennewick look-alike skull on the Department's shelves. Further investigation determined that this new skull, subsequently termed "Stick Man," had come from the northeastern Quincy Basin just east of the Columbia river in central Washington State (and about a hundred miles north-northeast of Kennewick), and was about 9,000 years old. Thus Stick Man turned out to share the same time, general area and perhaps even the same population with Kennewick Man.
In addition to this, scientific measurement of another early (~10,700 B.P.) skull from Spirit Cave (Nevada) revealed that its closest relationship, too, was to the Ainu (i.e., Jomon culture) and medieval Norse. It, too, was Proto-Caucasoid.
The list goes on. The interested reader is encouraged to read Dr. Chatters' book for the fascinating details of this involved detective work. But the one thing that stands out above all is this: There are no Indians (i.e., those alleged to be "Native Americans") to be found anywhere in the Americas prior to about 9,500 years ago. A scientific analysis of cranial traits revealed that Kennewick Man has a .02% chance of being Indian (cf. Ancient Encounters, p. 181). So much for the war whoops from the American Indian Movement and the United States government about Kennewick Man being Indian.
The Indians Arrive
Proto-Mongoloid, or Indian, skulls begin showing up in force in South America from about 9,000 B.P and in North America around 8,000 B.P. It may be assumed that Indians were thinly present somewhat before our oldest skeletal proofs of their existence here. But it would be stretching credulity to assert that they were here much before 9,000 B.P. It seems that the earliest true Mongoloids to evolve were a late-Ice-Age (23,000-15,000 B.P.) modification of the Dyuktai people dwelling on the Mammoth Steppe north of Lake Baikal: after earlier migrations had already long departed for North America (as mentioned above), the stay-at-home Siberians became physically adapted to the prolonged, severe cold of 8,000 years close to the ice sheets. Sometime after 13,000 B.P. (when Mongoloids are first found on the Kamchatka peninsula of northeast Asia) these early Mongoloids (Proto-Mongoloids) emigrated to Alaska. After the passage of several more millennia they begin appearing in the regions of what is now the United States and the land masses to the south.
Around the time of this new immigration (~8,000-7,000 B.P.), the tools used by the Paleoamerican peoples of the Intermountain West of North America - things such as bolas and crescents, moccasins and woven fabrics of the type found in Spirit Cave - cease appearing in the archaeological record. And over the next few thousand years, the Paleoamericans disappear virtually everywhere in the Americas as a distinct human subtype. It is believed by some scientists (e.g., Joseph Birdsell [UCLA], Georg Neumann [Indiana U.], Marta Lahr [Oxford U.]) that a few remnants were able to escape total expulsion and extermination by the Indian newcomers by remaining hidden in a few isolated, sheltered corners: the tip of South America (Tierra del Fuego [Ancient Encounters, p. 216, 231], Patagonia [ibid. p. 230f.] and the outermost Aleutian Islands [ibid. p. 230f.]).
In most places, the replacement, in U.S. skeletons, of Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics by Indian ones took place "abruptly" in the millennium 7,000-6,000 B.P. The switch seems to occur earliest in the Kennewick Man's and Stick Man's Pacific Northwest, while dragging out until up to 3,000 (California) or even 2,000 (Texas coast) years ago in some areas (Ancient Encounters, pp. 230f.). Baja California provided a refuge for Paleoamerican Proto-Negroids until as late as the sixteenth century, after which they became extinct.
The Big Picture
Archeological, fossil and genetic evidence have shown that the humanity originated in various species whose current names end in "-pithecus" ("ape"), especially Australopithecus ("Southern Ape"), and whose fossils have been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Also in Africa emerged, among others, later offshoots such as Paranthropus robustus, Homo erectus and, finally, Homo sapiens.
At this point it would be helpful to give some idea of the general outlines of human evolution, so as to be able to see the peopling of the Americas in its larger context. The prehistory of our species follows the general evolutionary pattern: there was not simply a single direct line, but a large cluster of branches of the higher primate category. Diversification of types was the norm and, contrary to politically correct wish-dreams, they did not cross-breed. Homo erectus of eastern Asia a million years ago, for example, is not an ancestor of modern man, no matter what politically motivated miscegenationists would like to believe. It is most unlikely that even the closely-related Homo neanderthalensis interbred with early Homo sapiens, despite what some recent Portuguese anthropologists have claimed. The following table shows some of the continuous, seemingly haphazard branching (speciation) which led to our emergence.
Some Earlier Relatives of Man
Summarized from "Once We Were Not Alone"
by Ian Tattersall (Paintings by Jan H. Matternes)
in Scientific American, January 2000,
Volume 282, Number 1
|eastern & souðern Africa|
(East Turkana in Kenya)
|eastern & souðern Africa|
(East Turkana in Kenya)
(East Turkana in Kenya)
(created stone hand axe)
||East Turkana in Kenya
||hominids of some kind
||China & Java; also|
at Dmanisi in Georgia
||Africa, ðen Europe;|
||Europe, western Asia
(created language about 40,000 years ago
and subsequently exterminated Homo neanderþalensis)
||Africa, ðen worldwide
This table shows the wandering, radiative nature of evolution whose explorations of ecological niches eventually led to us. This differentiation is continued in the variation into the subspecies we call "races" which precede full differentiation into separate species.
Homo sapiens first appeared less than 200,000 years ago, likewise in equatorial Africa. This earliest incarnation we might call Proto-Negroid. One part then moved to North Africa and the Middle East sometime in the period 100,000 to 70,000 B.P. For a long time this new "sapient" form, our ancestors, co-existed with Neanderthals, Homo erectus and perhaps yet other human sub-groups until finally, probably about 45,000 years ago, Homo sapiens alone developed the intellectual tool of language, which enabled him to out-compete and exterminate the other types. (Cf. Ian Tattersall's article in the January 2000, Volume 282, Number 1 edition of Scientific American, referred to in the table above.)
With this first move northward, the first split also occurred: those that remained in equatorial Africa became the ancestors to modern African Negroes or Blacks; the emigrants, on the other hand, gave rise to the rest of humanity.
One strand of the emigrants (still Proto-Negroid) kept to the southernmost portions of Asia and, migrating eastward, gave rise to the Proto-Negroid peoples of Australia and the Melanesian islands north and northeast of it, such as New Guinea, as well as to the subtropical populations of southeast Asia (~40,000 B.P.). Some of this same southern strand continued on even further: sailing up around the Pacific Rim (or perhaps directly eastwards), they eventually colonized South America, thereby becoming the first humans - the true "Native Americans" - in the western hemisphere. All of this happened before the appearance of the Mongoloid type (Amerinds) in the Americas. These early migrants did not spend very much time, if any, in the frigid vicinity of Ice-Age glaciers, and were not subjected to the fierce evolutionary pressures that awaited those who took a glacially slow route through the north. Thus these first South Americans changed little from the earliest Homo sapiens prototype and retained much of the Proto-Negroid nature of their ancestors.
In contrast to this southern emigrant stream, the northernmost portions of the Middle Eastern remainder of the African emigrés spread out to the northwest, north and northeast, losing their dark skin pigmentation in proportion to their northward advance and becoming Proto-Caucasoid (~70,000-50,000). The groups farthest east took to boats and reached (~25,000-15,000 B.P.) Japan, Polynesia and, finally, North America, where they became the ancestors of Kennewick Man, Stick Man and many other pre-Indians. In north Eurasia in the late Ice-Age period of 40,000 to 20,000 years ago, this Proto-Caucasoid northern branch underwent considerable pressures of natural selection due to the intensely cold winters. Among other things, these pressures selected for increasingly higher intelligence and the larger brains required to support it. During this time and especially over the seven-thousand-year period from about 22,000 to 15,000 years ago, the cold-tolerant Proto-Mongoloid form gradually emerged in the barren, icy wastes north of Lake Baikal. Meanwhile the less severe conditions closer to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas allowed a more "leisurely" evolution. Thus from the Proto-Caucasoid base emerged the Caucasoids in the west and the Mongoloids in the mid-Siberian east, while the less-pressured, easternmost northerners, who formed the basis of the Jomon culture and the later Ainu, did not change very much at all during this period.
So it came about that the Negroid peoples of Australia and Melanesia, together with the earliest inhabitants of South America, retained more of the traits of the earliest, Proto-Negroid forms of Homo sapiens, and are most closely related to African Negroes.
In a parallel manner, the White peoples of Europe retain somewhat more of the traits of the early, northern group of humans (Proto-Caucasoids) before the emergence of the Mongoloid type in the east, than do the Mongoloids. This explains why the Kennewick Man, Stick Man and other pre-Amerind North American relatives (as well as the Ainu of Japan) give an initial impression of being Caucasoid, since Whites are generally closer to the pre-split (and pre-Mongoloid) northern prototype, than are the Orientals who have diverged more strongly from it. (On this, see also "RACE, EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR: A Life History Perspective," 2nd Special Abridged Edition, Professor J. Philippe Rushton, U. of Western Ontario.)
The following is a brief outline of the last 200,000 years of human evolution. The ages given are necessarily approximate only, with the margins of error increasing with time. The advance of science will make it more exact as time goes on. But for now it will provide a general framework within which to understand the history of our species. An even better presentation of the current state of our knowledge of human evolution will be found in Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors by Nicholas Wade (2006), whose work has provided us with a much-needed update on the subject. (Note: "kya" = "thousands of years ago")
- Original (southern) type:
Africa [200 kya]
- Derivative types:
- Southern derivative type:
- Africa only (before emigration of perhaps only ca. 150 individuals to Arabian peninsula)
- Southernmost Asia [50-40 kya]
- Australia & Melanesia [50-40 kya]
- (Quite possibly) Central & South America [40-30 kya]
- Northern derivative type:
|Proto-Caucasoids <40-20 kya>
- N. Africa & Mid-East [50 kya]
- Mammoth Steppe (Siberia & Beringia) [25 kya]
- N. America [20-15 kya]
- Northernmost branchings:
- N. Africa, Mid-East [30 kya]
- S. Europe [30 kya]
- N. Europe [25 kya]
- Cold-tolerant branch:
|Proto-Mongoloids <20 kya>
- Eastern Mammoth Steppe (NE Siberia & Beringia) [20 kya]
- American hemisphere south of Beringian Alaska (especially Amerinds) [9 kya]
- Temperate Asian form:
- Mongolia [10 kya]
- N. China [5 kya]
- Korea, Tibet [4 kya]
- Japan [2 kya]
- Indo-China [2-1 kya]
Radiocarbon testing continues to reveal ever more. Studies of the Kennewick Man's bones indicate a high diet of marine food.3 Other, nearby finds of bone needles close to the Kennewick Man's remains indicate that the Kennewick man may possibly have worn tailored clothing.4 (This was much further advanced than the "Native American" technology; even after the Spanish had arrived in North America the Indians still wore little clothing.) These astonishing discoveries further tell us that the Kennewick man was not alone, but that he lived in a community of some sort; and that he differed greatly from the incoming (~9,000-2,000) Indians. (In Spirit Cave, Nevada, for instance, anthropologists Douglas Owsley and Richard Jante studied ancient remains that were contemporary with those of the Kennewick man; they found other artifacts were "very different" from those that have any resemblance to the implements of recent "Native" Americans).5
Similarities of other Paleoamericans
with Old World Solutrean Peoples
There are also questions involving other pre-Amerind cultures. As mentioned above, there are strong indications that the Solutreans of Ice-Age Spain were ancestral to the Clovis culture. The Clovis people disappeared as mysteriously as they had come, hunted mammoths, mastodon, giant bison, antelope, and other creatures, all of which are now extinct -- just as the earlier Solutrean people did.6 There are remarkable similarities to the Old World Solutrean people, who lived in western and southern ice age Europe, and who also hunted large game from 22,000 to 19,000 or 18,000 B.P. The Solutrean people (that is, most likely, their shamans) drew many pictures of giant bison, mammoths and horses in caves discovered by archeologists and others in Spain and southern France.
Horses, too, were on the North American continent during the reign of the Clovis people, but their fate remains unknown. Could the horses have been used by the Clovis people to hunt game, and did they die with the Clovis people? Were they used as food just as the large game that the Clovis people hunted? Above all, why did they go extinct? Some think that the changing climate eliminated the horses' food base, but such views are by no means unanimous.
Solutrean7 and Clovis8 arrowheads
Comparison of the tools or weapons used by the Solutrean people of the Old World and the Clovis people of ancient North America reveals striking similarities. The flint tips used to kill game appear almost identical. (Compare pictures of their arrowheads, above.)
Patrick Stewart (Star Trek's "Captain Jean-Luc Picard"): Kennewick Man look-alike
Tom McClelland of Richland, WA, shows the skull casting of the Kennewick Man he and anthropologist Jim Chatters used to re-create the facial features of the 9,200-year-old discovery.
Proto-Caucasoid Life in North America
Both the nature and the antiquity of the earliest archeological finds prove that the Paleoamericans were not Amerinds (Proto-Mongoloids). Consider: The Fork Rock Cave in Oregon has been in the middle of ongoing new discoveries. The cave itself is small -- only thirty-five feet wide and sixty-five feet long. It was here in 1938 that about seventy pairs of sandals made of sagebrush were discovered by Luther S. Cressman.9 Radio-carbon dating technology dated the sandals at nine thousand years old (fortunately, the sandals were preserved until radio-carbon dating was invented). Charcoal was also found with a radio-carbon date indicating it was thirteen thousand two-hundred years old.10 The sagebrush sandals were intricately woven, and the other items found in the cave included projectile points, scrapers, drills, a wooden trigger for a trap, small pieces of basketry and awls to make leather (or tailored clothing for kinfolk of the Kennewick man), all of which indicated skilled workers.11 These differ vastly from Indian artifacts both in ancient North America and in modern Indian findings.
Douglas Owsley, Division Head of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) in Washington D.C., has examined all of the seven well-preserved skeletons found in North America and found that they all have Proto-Caucasoid features in common. These seven different skeletons were found at seven different sites and from different, though quite remote, periods of time. The Kennewick man, one of the seven, has an ancient Indian spearhead of the "Cascade" type in his hip.12 All of these remains came from the period near the end of the later glacial era, during which the Clovis people disappeared - a fact which strengthens the argument that the deceased were more closely related to the Clovis people than to Amerinds.
How the Clovis People Came to North America
The Beringian Bridge theory holds that large bands of Proto-Mongoloids (or those whom the politically correct romanticize as "Native Americans") migrated over a land bridge connecting the two continents twelve to fourteen thousand years ago. The Kennewick Man, the above-mentioned sandals, and other objects (or tools) -- all unrelated to Indian findings -- suggest that "Native Americans" were not the first or only immigrants. It is quite possible, even probable, that in North America Solutrean-descended Proto-Caucasoids from the east (e.g., from the peoples responsible for Marmes Rockshelter, Cactus Hill, and, later, Clovis itself) came into contact with Pacific-Rim Proto-Caucasoids from the west (Kennewick Man, Stick Man, Spirit Cave, etc.). Such contacts could well have contributed to the Clovis culture. At a professional conference at the end of October 1999, two prominent archeologists, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, suggested that the Solutrean people crossed the Atlantic from what is now northern Spain and southern France about 18,000 years ago and settled in North America, establishing what is now called the "Clovis" culture. This construction of the evidence is strongly supported by projectile points and other "diachronic" correspondences between the two cultures. We know that humans had been sailing around the Pacific for thousands of years prior to the appearance of the Clovis culture, so it is no great stretch of the imagination to suppose that the Solutreans used skin boats to cross the much smaller Atlantic in perhaps as little as three weeks. The fact that much of the same technology appears in both Solutrea and Clovis - and nowhere else - strongly suggests that we are looking at two branches of the same people: a Caucasoid-like people.
Another discovery in Central Asia also shows some Clovis burial traits. This eighteen-thousand-year-old grave, the burial site of two children near Lake Baikal in Siberia on what could have been a route to North America, is very similar to what appears to be the grave of two cremated children found in a Montana excavation; both interments also had evidence of mammoth bones surrounding the bodies (a cult practice also found among the Clovis people).13
Years of unrelenting media and political pressure from the U.S. government, Indians and self-hating White academics to construct a "multi-racial" Kennewick Man have begun to affect even Dr. Jim Chatters. He has reacted like the countless honest but gun-shy Christian biblical researchers who disbelieve in the resurrection of Christ. When asked whether they believe in that dogma or not, they quickly change the topic to the "real" meaning of Jesus (which somehow always turns out to be a politically correct obfuscation). Something similar is happening in this case. From Dr. Chatters' book, it is evident that he desperately wants to avoid an onslaught by the politically correct establishment. Married as he is to an Indian woman and being attacked by the intensely racist Indian tribes of eastern Washington State, he bends over backwards trying to "neutralize" the racial specificity of Kennewick Man. He insists on the obvious: that it is impossible to tell skin color from ancient bones (although the probability is extremely high that Kennewick Man did indeed have white skin). He states that Kennewick Man is an ancestor "of all of us," thereby sidestepping the issue completely. In contradiction to his own findings about the bones, he has even gone to the extreme of inventing a new face for Kennewick Man with an "Indian" nose in order to please the media and the propaganda masters.
Despite such obscurantist contortions, it is ridiculous to view the branch represented by Kennewick Man as somehow belonging to American Indians or as not being Caucasoid-like. And it is impossible for Kennewick Man to have been an "ancestor of all of us," since his people, and very possibly he himself, were exterminated by the Indians. (Of course, facts have never been important to the anti-White racial miscegenationists dominating modern American culture; only propaganda matters.)
The Extinction of the Paleoamericans
and the U.S. War against Truth
By the time Europenas arrived, there were no Proto-Caucasoids or Proto-Negroids left in the Americas, except perhaps for a few small, mixed populations at the hemispheric extremities or a dying Proto-Negroid remnant on the barren cul-de-sac of Baja California. Other than these sparse leftovers, only Proto-Mongoloids were around, savagely warring against one another. What happened, then, to the Paleoamericans, north and south?
These questions have spawned much controversy, mainly because it may impact "Native American" rights and, above all, government money from non-"Native American" taxpayers. The "Native (?) Americans" argue that the Kennewick man and other skeletons should be buried under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990. But with the new evidence, it is now clear that the Kennewick Man cannot belong to any existing tribe, and scientists should be allowed to study the skeleton under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act ("NAGPRA") of 1979. Scientists and "Native American" tribes are continuing their battle in court, but regardless of the legal outcome (which depends on politics, not truth) we can start rethinking and rewriting ancient North American history as to who the first settlers on the continent were and what happened to some of them.
North American Indians believe in storytelling as not only a traditional but an accurate method of transmitting their history. Armand Minthorn, a mendacious tribal leader for the Umatillas tribe, stated that "from our oral histories we know that we have been a part of this land since the beginning of time ... Our elders have told us that Indian people did not always look the way we look today ... We already know our history. It is passed on to us through our elders and through our religious practices."14 Given this interpretation of knowledge and truth, it is no wonder that the cultures of Mr. Minthorn's ancestors and of other Native Americans remain at such a pitiably low level even after having been exposed to White civilization for centuries.
In contrast, according to the logic and scientific findings of the White man, the oral transmission of history can be distorted and much of it forgotten if it is not written. (This is so regardless of the obvious fears Indians have about their mythology being labeled as fantasy and about the possibility -- some would say probability -- of their ancestors having committed genocide against Whites.) But for honest Whites, it is truth that matters; It may be "immoral" to some Amerinds and White genosuicidists to study the bones of the dead. But the same "Native American" people who have called this "immoral" for religious or other reasons, also put cedar chips and leaves into the wooden box which held the Kennewick Man's remains; they thereby deliberately introduced matter which could damage the ancient relics. They also put other bones into the Kennewick Man's box to make others believe that this discovery was a hoax.15 Not only this, but several of the bones in the care of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Batelle Institute, Building S-5 ("Sigma Five") in Richland, Washington, mysteriously disappeared. Naturally, the Corps blamed it on Dr. Chatters, in spite of the fact that all the evidence clearly indicates that the bones' disappearance was due to the anti-White attitude of the Corps in letting the Indians physically handle and steal the bones. (The Corps did not, of course, show this same deference to the Whites of the Asatru religion, who believe the Kennewick Man to have been an early Caucasoid). Such acts of vandalism are finally, one hopes, being prevented and proper methods of storing the bones used. As far as Indians' assertions about (White) scientists' "immorality," are concerned, it should be pointed out that the scientific study of these antique bones to advance science is the most moral use that could be made of them.
Under the orders of U.S. Magistrate John Jelderks in Portland, on Friday, October 30, 1998, the Kennewick Man's bones were finally removed from the jurisdiction of the anti-White U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and transferred to the Burke Museum in Seattle. (This was done even though a Burke curator had sent the concerned scientists an offensive e-mail "that was replete with insult, misinformation and accusation," according to the scientists.) Located on the campus of the ultra-liberal and extremely anti-White University of Washington, the Burke Museum is nonetheless a major national resource for information on the natural and cultural history of the Pacific Northwest.
Finally the scientists got a limited chance to study the remains. Dr. Jane Richards concluded that the Kennewick Man appears to have the same skull structure found in the remains of Marmes Man (found at the Marmes cave site on the Snake River in Washington state). If this is borne out by forensic pathologists, then a pre-Indian migration of non-Mongoloid peoples can be demonstrated. This would certainly not answer all the questions, but it would be a start and maybe an impetus to archaeologists to continue the much needed study and excavations in both eastern Washington state and eastern Oregon (providing financial blocks to applications for rescue archaeology are removed).
The truth-hating mass media claimed that the Burke investigators had found the Kennewick Man to be "Asian," thereby suggesting to the uninformed that he was Mongoloid rather than Caucasoid. After all, the people (and specifically Whites) have to be protected from the truth. Nonetheless, it did slip out that Kennewick Man was -- and is -- totally unrelated to any modern American Indian type. So much for the American Indian Movement's mythology about the ancestors of the Indians springing up out of the ground like mushrooms and the Kennewick Man being one of them. Of course, the subspecies of White neurotics known euphemistically as "liberals" is riven by cognitive dissonance over these findings. Such a thing cannot, in the dominant anti-White view they espouse, be true. It will have to be suppressed. Unfortunately, the liberals and their many corporate and government supporters may have the power to do this, since they control such organizations as the Army Corps of Engineers and, apparently, the Burke Museum in Seattle.
Government Corruption of Truth
At the beginning of December 1999, the Associated Press reported that the federal government and the Burke Museum were confessing to yet another delay in the release of investigatory results about the Kennewick Man. This time it was a delay in releasing dating-test results on the specious ground that the bones didn't have enough protein for good testing. In response, a Portland lawyer, Alan Schneider, representing eight anthropologists suing the government over the remains, pointed out that the government's agents should have done chemical analyses to determine which fragments were best for testing. The anthropologists also charged that the federal hirees took as much as 100 times as much bone as they need for testing. In other words, we can be sure the government has done its best to bias the results in favor of its pre-drawn conclusions. It is difficult to guess exactly what tack the government was trying to take here. Possibly they were trying to taint the bones in some way which would make it impossible to determine anything at all, so they could then give the "benefit of the doubt" to the Proto-Mongoloids. More likely, "our" government might also have been attempting to drag out and play down the whole issue of the Kennewick Man in the hope that Whites would forget all about this momentous discovery and the bones could be quietly buried with animal remains on some tribal reservation in Washington State. Your tax dollars at work.
In the second week of January, 2000, the results of yet more radiocarbon testing were finally allowed to seep out to the newspapers, TV and radio. The tests indicated an age of about 9,200 years before the present. In other words, no real difference from what had originally been determined three years previously. Or rather, the difference was in the government's obscuring of the truth through delays. The regime's lawyers then proceeded to argue that the skeleton should be betrayed to the Indians because it belonged "to a culture that predated the arrival of Columbus." In others words, since the perverse Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act ("NAGPRA") of 1990 claims that any remains dating to before Columbus' discovery of the New World are "Indian," the evidence that non-Indians inhabited the continent before 1492 must be destroyed.
So there you have it. The twisted logic of the regime now enabled its psychobabbling functionaries to take the bones of, say, ancient Vikings found on Long Island and give them "back" to Redskins on the absurd basis that the Vikings were in North America before Columbus and therefore "must" be Indians. After this perversion of justice the financially weak Asatru Folk Assembly withdrew from the litigation, recognizing that the power of governmentally enforced lie can defeat all truth. The scientists continued to fight doggedly on. In early January, 2001, they claimed that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers violated the National Historic Preservation Act by plowing over the burial site where the 9,300-year-old skeleton had been found. In response, Corps officials lied that they had simply been "trying to keep looters away" from the site when they covered it with 500 tons of rocks and soil in 1998. The scientists pointed out that the Corps violated laws governing preservation of historical artifacts and risked ruining the original burial site. Of course, since the anti-White U.S. Government has all the money and power in the world, it didn't take much insight to see what the outcome is going to be.
The scientists' persistence is all the more admirable in the face of the grotesque fraud perpetrated on Monday, September 25, 2000 by Bruce Babbit, the Secretary of the U.S. Interior Department. This spin artist meowed that "Although ambiguities in the data made this a close call, I was persuaded by the geographic data and oral histories of the five tribes that collectively assert they are descendants of people who have been in the region of the Upper Columbia Plateau for a very long time," according to the Associated Press. And with that pretext, he decided that Kennewick Man was to be given to five American Indian tribes who claim him as an ancestor. Luckily for the scientists, however, the haughty Babbit would not determine the fate of the skeleton; instead, the scientists persisted in prosecuting their lawsuit and, since the corrupt Clinton administration finally ended, increased their chances of winning it. (Of course, by that time the government may have ensured that there will be nothing left to study.)
On January 20, 2001, William Jefferson Clinton and his lackeys left office under much shame and disgrace (vandalizing much of the office equipment in the White House as they left), and the scientists were able to pursue their case without quite as much governmental harassment and obstruction as thitherto. On April 19, 2001 the Associated Press reported that they had filed documents in federal court showing that the Clinton regime, seeking to avoid a "messy" debate over just who the first human inhabitants of North America really were, had inexcusably and improperly allowed contacts between White House staff and members of a coalition of five American Indian tribes seeking to bury the skeleton. Further, the federal officials "coached the coalition on how to plead its case." These documents make even more manifest the criminality of the genosuicidal Left masterminded by the fatherless Clinton.
In the face of these political attempts to suppress truth, science marched on. On Tuesday, July 31, 2001, the news media carried a report by Guy Gugliotta of the Washington Post, "Evidence suggests earlier migration to America," with the subtitle, "STUDY: A more genetically diverse population is found," about the results of a new study on the early peopling of the Americas. It said the following:
|Ancient peoples only loosely related to modern Asians crossed the Arctic land bridge to settle America some 15,000 years ago, according to a study offering new evidence that the Western Hemisphere hosted a more genetically diverse population at a much earlier time than previously thought.
The early immigrants most closely resembled the prehistoric Jomon people of Japan and their closest modern descendants, the Ainu, from the Japanese island of Hokkaido, the study said. Both the Jomon and Ainu have skull and facial characteristics more genetically similar to those of Europeans than to mainland Asians.
The immigrants settled throughout the hemisphere, and were in place when a second migration - from mainland Asia - came across the Bering Strait beginning 5,000 years ago and swept southward as far as modern-day Arizona and New Mexico, the study said. The second migration is the genetic origin of today's Eskimos, Aleuts and the Navajo of the U.S. southwest. The study in today's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences adds new evidence to help settle one of anthropology's most contentious debates: Who were the first Americans? And when did they come?
"When this has been done before, it's been done from one point of view," said University of Michigan physical anthropologist C. Loring Brace, who led the team of researchers from the United States, China and Mongolia that wrote the new report. "We try to put together more dimensions."
For decades, anthropologists' dogma held that the Americas were populated by a single migration from Asia around 11,200 years ago - the supposed age of the earliest of the elegantly crafted, grooved arrowheads first found in the 1930s at Clovis, N.M.
By the end of the 1990s, however, the weight of evidence had pushed the date of the first arrivals back several thousand years. But as the migration timetable slipped, additional questions and controversies have arisen. The 1996 discovery in Kennewick of the nearly complete skeleton of a 9,300-year-old man with "apparently Caucasoid" features stimulated interest in the possibility of two or more migrations - including a possible influx from Europe.
The new study attempted to answer this question by comparing 21 different skull and facial characteristics from more than 10,000 ancient and modern populations in both the Western Hemisphere and the old World.
The findings provide strong new evidence supporting earlier work suggesting that ancient Americans, like Kennewick Man, were descended from the Jomon, who walked from Japan to the Asian mainland and eventually to the Western Hemisphere on land bridges as the Earth began to warm up about 15,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age.
Kennewick Man, in short, is not an Amerind, but a representative of the eastern branch of the early White or Proto-Caucasoid race.
Then, on February 4, 2004, a miracle: it was reported by the Associated Press that "[t]he 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco upheld a decision last August by U.S. Magistrate Judge John Jelderks in Portland that the remains, which Northwest Indian tribes consider sacred, can be studied. ...
"The three-judge panel found that the remains do not fall under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act and can be studied under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act.
"The decision was written by Judge Ronald M. Gould. ...
"The ruling said the remains date to a time before any recorded history and that that makes it impossible to establish any relationshipwith existing Indians."
Thus, through great effort and expense, White science has won a partial victory over anti-White irrationality and guilt-mongering by Amerinds. For the time being, at least, non-White suppression of the truth has been restrained. With the genosuicidal lunatics of the Clinton presidency out of power, science has regained a modicum of freedom.
This brings us to a final word about the federal government itself. In the last decade or so, business and financial writers have talked a great deal about the "culture" of business organizations and how to change it. This topic should also be applied today to the "culture" of the American government. As is the case also with the major religions, the central psychodynamic of this organization is never mentioned in polite company. That psychodynamic is the insensate drive to push the White race to suicide through racial miscegenation while the U.S.-based oligarchy attains socio-economic domination of the entire globe. All kinds of irrelevant peripheral matters are raised to block any discussion thereof. And vituperation - the old ad hominem logical error - is the normal response to those who object to racial suicide. Since the unprecedented rise of the global economy masks the biological (to say nothing of the moral) destruction of the Caucasoid peoples, the majority of Whites is easily persuaded to go quietly into the eternal night. The inner circles of American power are keenly conscious of this reality. For they are the forces most eagerly seeking the Brave New World Order of mulattoism. Their strongest ally is the sick religion: Christianity. This creed, in all its denominations, claims that all Whites are "guilty" by virtue of their white skins. Non-Whites (the darker the better) must be "understood" if they act like animals. This, then, is the all-pervasive, government-led irrationality which seeks to turn the Proto-Caucasoid skeleton called the Kennewick Man over to Proto-Mongoloids.
Possible Causes of the Disappearance
of the Paleoamericans
Thus all the evidence supports the thesis that Kennewick Man, Stick Man and other Paleoamericans were descended from the same eastern Proto-Caucasoid branch which gave rise to the indigenous Ainu of Japan. The Cascade spearpoint in Kennewick's hip, his broken, half-healed ribs and an old skull wound strongly suggest that he led a very violent life. Evidence of severe wounds on other Paleoamerican skeletons indicate the same. Dr. Chatters, discussing the disappearance of them all, suggests that Paleoamerican women did not bear enough children (their births being allegedly too widely spaced) and died too frequently in childbirth to save the race from extinction, and that many of the wounds came about from battles between the men over the dwindling supply of women.
This hypothesis, while agreeable to the politically correct, conveniently ignores several obvious facts. To begin with, the Paleoamericans had survived just find for at least ten thousand years before the arrival of the Amerinds, despite the high childbirth mortality found in all pre-modern peoples. Secondly, the timing of the disappearance of the Paleoamericans and the appearance of the Amerinds is simply too simultaneous to be dismissed as coincidental. And thirdly, the "disappeared" peoples included not just the cultures of the west, but also the Solutrean-descended ones of the east, of North America, and the Proto-Negroid peoples of South America to boot.
Early man's hunt to extinction of large mammals
As the Paleoamericans ran out of large game in North America, the pressure to survive forced them to look to other strategies to cover their needs, one of them being territorial defense and offense. This suggests three possibilities as to why the these peoples vanished as mysteriously as they appeared: the first, which is the least likely, is that they starved with the inability to adjust to new methods of hunting; the second is a war with neighboring Indian tribes in which they were annihilated, which is probably the most common theory based on the historically high frequency of genocide;16 finally, the third possibility has them assimilating with coexisting North American Indian Tribes.
The possibility that the Caucasoids were starved out of existence is not really supported. There are and were plenty of food resources in the Pacific Northwest and in all of North America as well. Since the scientific testing already done on the Kennewick man shows he had a high marine diet (possibly salmon), together with the lush vegetation, buffaloes, caribou, elk, and deer, it seems most improbable that his people could starve.
But the competition for food and land that arose with neighboring non-Caucasoids could have ignited hostilities that lasted several hundred years. As the extinction of big game forced all early Americans to develop new methods of hunting and gathering, conflicts over territory must have arisen between the Proto-Caucasoids and the invaders. As is usual in history, rising tensions between peoples led to wars. It is quite possible that the ever larger number of Indian tribes, often at war even with one another, more readily attacked the Proto-Caucasoids because they were easily identified as an enemy by their physical and racial differences. In addition, the Proto-Mongoloids were almost certainly of higher intelligence than the Proto-Caucasoids and Proto-Negroids, and thus were able to outwit them (See J. Philippe Rushton's RACE, EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR," mentioned above). So it came about that the Red Man exterminated the Paleoamerican Whites and Blacks utterly.
To combat the serious research in recent years by various scientists now documenting the genetically based, great behavioral differences between races, liberal anti-White academics are now taking a new tack. There is, they assert, no such thing as race. They claim that the momentous racial differences in such areas as intelligence, brainwave frequency, mental endurance, law-abidingness, ability to defer gratification, and many other "mental" or even "spiritual" traits have sprung up in the last few thousand years of prehistory and cannot be considered "racial" differences. Therefore, on this view, behold!: there are no races (except for purposes of affirmative action) at all. (In fact, there are so few difference between us and the other great apes, why not give them welfare and equal rights also?)
This, of course, is little more than defining the issue of biological differences out of existence. A neat trick on the part of the academics. They get to have their cake and eat it, too. Racial differences are explained away as "cultural." Whites are defined as merely having (or being) cultures of evil, while non-Whites and mulattoes are romanticized as "victims" of the monstrous Whites. This interpretation has of course found a great deal of support among the race-suicidal components of the White and Jewish population, which are concentrated in the media and academe. Redefinition of the facts allows them to obscure reality and justify their war on evolution.
As far as Indian "culture" is concerned, we may look at the earliest forms of civilization (city-systems) in the Americas - those of the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs - for an example of the institutionalized violence and elaborate forms of human sacrifice already in the New World long before the Europeans arrived. The Aztecs, whose ancestors originally came from what is now the U.S. southwest (their language is related to that of the Navajos, and their own myths tell of their migration from the north), were savage warriors who wiped out many lesser tribes, sacrificing and eating many thousands of people at a time. The violent measures that were used by them did not just happen. Their cruel methods were taught, advanced and promoted through an elaborately constructed mythology - an idea system innate to pre-Columbian Amerind culture everywhere. We need look no further than the U.S. Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776 (quoted at the beginning of this essay) for testimony to the grotesque savagery of the Amerinds in their native state. The hideous deaths inflicted by Indians on early French Jesuit missionaries in Canada give evidence of the same thing. (Examples are: John de Brébeuf, tortured to death by the Iroquois in 1649; Gabriel Lalemant, tortured for seventeen hours and martyred with John de Brébeuf; Isaac Jogues, tortured by Mohawks [some fingers bitten off], tomahawked and scalped by Iroquois Indians in 1646; Noël Chabanel, martyred in 1649; Charles Garnier, martyred in 1649; Anthony Daniel, martyred in 1648.)
Thirdly, we come to assimilation. This theory has its pros and cons. For assimilation, one can look to Indian oral history. Members of the American Indian Movement allege that their ancestors looked physically much different than they look today (even though they physically resemble the Mongoloid peoples of northeast Asia and carry mostly the same genes). Assimilation would change their physical appearance and support their theory. Presumably assimilation would also account for the decline of technology following the disappearance of the Paleoamerican Proto-Caucasoids. Added to this is the fanatically held U.S. melting-pot ideology which holds that assimilation and the termination of evolution are inevitable, just and wonderful for everybody. Alas, there is still no evidence that Indian tribes generally (outside of the hemispheric extremities), before the "melting pot" situation of modern America, had anything but Proto-Mongoloid genes. So if there was any Proto-Caucasoid admixture, it was quite small.
We are left, so it seems, with the scenario of genocidal wars. This was the primary cause of the disappearance of the Paleoamericans which anthropologists were at a loss to explain until the end of the twentieth century. But with the incredible discovery of the Kennewick Man, history on the North American continent can now be rethought and rewritten.
Skull cast and restored face of Kennewick Man
Dr. James Chatters
APPENDICES(Return to Text)
Although anything called "paranormal" has been anathema to the official scientific establishment in modern times, Dr. Chatters has had some experiences involving the Kennewick Man which can only be described as uncanny.
of Dr. James Chatters
in Connection with Kennewick Man
To begin with, it must be remarked that, among scientists, forensic specialists and others who work with the bones of the dead, it is not at all unusual to get a "feel" for the personality of the former owner of those bones. Those who experience this phenomenon are quite aware of the fact that they are encountering the spiritual essence or memories of another person. So it was with Dr. Chatters. He came to "know" the Kennewick Man as a human being, not just as a pile of bones. This knowledge is normally sensed through the slow-brainwave faculty of memory, which captures much more than merely personal experiences. That is to say, our memory not only takes in information from our daily life experiences, but also from the "mental" infrastructure of existence, which remembers all events. Memories also embed themselves in particular in the physical environment of an event, and skeletal bones retain the memories of their former owners. (Cf. Ásatrú and the Paranormal)
One day when Dr. Chatters was handling the Kennewick Man's skull, he was looking at it from the rear. Now it so happens that the back of that skull is missing, so that when you view it from behind, you can see through the skull and the eye sockets to the other side. As he was doing this, he suddenly found himself looking at the room with the Kennewick Man's own eyes! He had become momentarily "identified" with the Kennewick Man.
Afterwards, when he would drive along the highways through the semi-arid landscape of Eastern Washington in his car, he often found himself inexplicably feeling a mysterious attraction to that landscape, as though he needed to be out there doing something. Just as the Kennewick Man had done so many thousands of years before.
When the politicized Army Corps of Engineers demanded possession of the bones, it was a sad day for Dr. Chatters. However, when he learned that the Indians were demanding to bury the bones with their own kind, he felt something far worse: sheer, inexplicable panic. This feeling of panic was not something that came from Dr. Chatters himself. It flooded him from a dimension beyond our world. He felt the terror of the Kennewick Man himself faced with the prospect of being confined with his ancient mortal enemies, the Indians. Irrational? Yes. Like the irrational terror felt when suddenly faced by a murderer aiming a lethal weapon at you.
Finally, Dr. Chatters admits to having had other paranormal experiences related to Kennewick Man. He will not say what these experiences are, so that others can only guess. One guess is that he has experienced actual apparitions of this ancient representative of the Caucasoid race, epiphanies which made clear to him that the truth about the early peopling of the Americas must be made known, and that the liberaloid suppression of truth in favor of some romantic notion about Redskin "noble savages" must be ended. This is the true reason why Dr. Chatters has pursued the subject of Paleoamericans with such dedication: he has been gripped by the saga and the adventure and the mystical depths of these Ancient Encounters.